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PERFECT TENSES
PERFECT TENSES

 

  

Através de tabelas e exemplos, esse post mostrará as características de alguns dos tempos verbais perfeitos em inglês. 

São eles: Present Perfect (e suas diferenças com o Simple Past), Present Perfect + time adverbs, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect e Modal Perfect. Confira abaixo:


PRESENT PERFECT (e suas diferenças com o Simple Past)


 

SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT PERFECT

 

 

HOW TO USE IT

 

 

 

Action that happened in the past; it’simportant to say when it happened, at a specific moment.

 

Action that happened in the past; it’s not important to say when it happened, at a non-specific moment.

 

 

 

AFFIRMATIVE

 

 

 

saw the movie yesterday.

 

 

(pronome + verbo no passado)

 

have seen the movie.

 

 

(I,YOU,THEY, WE + have + verbo no particípio)

(HE, SHE, IT + has + verbo no particípio)

 

 

 

NEGATIVE

 

 

 

didn’t see the movie yesterday.

 

 

(pronome + didn’t + verbo no presente)

 

 

haven’t seen the movie.

 

 

(I,YOU,THEY, WE + haven’t + verbo no particípio)

(HE, SHE, IT + hasn’t + verbo no particípio)

 

 

 

INTERROGATIVE

 

 

 

Did you see the movie yesterday?

 

 

(did + pronome + verbo no presente)

 

Have you seen the movie?

 

 

(have + I,YOU,THEY, WE  + verbo no particípio)

(has + HE, SHE, IT + verbo no particípio)

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT + TIME ADVERBS

 

JEANY SF

USE

TIP

PRESENT PERFECT + JUST

Very recent past

AFF/NEG/INT

PRESENT PERFECT + EVER

Life experience

AFF/INT

PRESENT PERFECT + ALREADY

Action that has happened before expected

AFF/INT

PRESENT PERFECT + NEVER

Life experience

AFF

PRESENT PERFECT + YET

Action that still hasn’t happened

NEG/INT

PRESENT PERFECT + SINCE

When an action has started

AFF/NEG

PRESENT PERFECT + FOR

Duration / Period

AFF/NEG

 

MODAL PERFECT

    

 

WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

 

Hypothesis about the past

 

COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

Speculating about possibilities in the past

 

SHOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

 

Regrets

 

MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

Speculating about an action that probably has happened.

 

MAY HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

Speculating about an action that maybe has happened.

 

MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

Speculating about an action that maybe has happened.

 

CAN’T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

 

Speculating about an action that probably hasn’t happened.


PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


 

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

 

 

HOW TO USE IT

 

 

 

 

Action that has started in the past and it is still happening

 

 

AFFIRMATIVE

 

 

 

have been studying here since 2010.

 

(I,YOU,THEY, WE + have been + verbo no ING)

(HE, SHE, IT + has been + verbo no ING)

 

 

 

NEGATIVE

 

 

 

haven’t been studying here since 2010.

 

(I,YOU,THEY, WE + haven’t been + verbo no ING)

(HE, SHE, IT + hasn’t  been + verbo no ING)

 

 

 

INTERROGATIVE

 

 

 

Have you been studying here since 2010?

 

(have + I,YOU,THEY, WE  + been +  verbo no ING)

(has + HE, SHE, IT + been + verbo no ING)

 

 

PAST PERFECT

 

 

PAST PERFECT

 

HOW TO USE IT

 

Action that has happened beforeanother action also in the past

 

 

 

AFFIRMATIVE

 

 

 

had cleaned the house when she arrived

 

 

(pronome + had + verbo no particípio)

 

 

 

 

NEGATIVE

 

 

 

hadn’t cleaned the house when she arrived

 

 

(pronome + hadn’t + verbo no particípio)

 

 

 

 

INTERROGATIVE

 

 

 

Had you cleaned the house when she arrived?

 

(had + pronome + verbo no particípio)